Urban Farming - Vertical farms and rooftop farms are examples of the movement of food production into urban areas.  Most urban farms utilize spaces that can't or aren't being used for housing or other commercial use.  Location of farms in urban areas also reduces transportation costs and environmental impact.  The limited space in urban areas means that large scale food production can't be supported, but it can be a supplement to more traditional farms.

Vertical Farming - Utilizes high density plantings in repurposed buildings.  Growing indoors with primarily artificial lighting allows plants to be stacked vertically to make optimum use of the growing area.  Light quality and quantity, temperature and other environmental factors can all be optimized in the indoor facilities.  While energy consumption is high, pesticide use is eliminated, water usage is reduced and fertilizer runoff can be managed to reduce environmental impact.

Plant Factories - Utilized primarily in Japan and the Netherlands, plant factories are built, customized and optimized for high throughput plant production.  Computerized systems can control lighting, temperature, water, nutrient availability and other plant growth variables to ensure the highest quality produce.  Clean room technologies are often employed to ensure that food contamination is prevented.


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